Nutrition is essential for the body to function properly and stay healthy. It is composed of different elements, such as fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, dietary fibers, minerals, and water. These elements nourish the body and protect it from major diseases. Nutrition can be divided into three main categories: autotrophic mode, heterotrophic mode, and micronutrients.
Autotrophic ModeAutotrophic mode is the process of preparing food from inorganic minerals such as carbon dioxide, water, mineral salts, etc. This process is known as photosynthesis and is mainly carried out by plants. During this process, plants break down the food into glucose to survive.
Heterotrophic ModeHeterotrophic mode is the process of obtaining food from external sources.
This process is mainly carried out by animals and humans. During this process, organisms obtain their nutrients from other living organisms or their by-products.
MicronutrientsMicronutrients are essential components needed for the body's metabolic activity. They include calcium, iron, vitamins, etc.
These nutrients help repair and build damaged tissues to support organs. They also expand the body's crucial source of energy produced by breaking down food.
MacronutrientsMacronutrients are compounds such as proteins, fats and carbohydrates that are considered macronutrients. Foods such as rice, noodles, bread, grain-based products, etc., contain carbohydrates or saccharides which are distinguished according to the number of monomers such as disaccharides, monosaccharides or polysaccharides.
The human body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose which supports brain and body function and prevents muscle mass loss by preventing the body from breaking down protein into energy.
ProteinsProteins are a group of molecules that form amino acids. They help muscle formation and create enzymes and hormones. There are nearly 20 amino acids in the body's proteins, of which nearly 10 are absorbed from the diet.
The human body needs amino acids to produce new proteins and repair damaged proteins. Including several foods in a diet such as eggs, red meat, dairy products, beans and nuts would meet protein requirements.
FatsFats are essential for supporting cell growth and supplying the body with energy. The body uses fat to absorb vitamins.
They supply the body with energy and protect organs from damage. Fats are known to keep the body warm and full of energy.
WaterEvery human being needs 2 liters of water a day. It helps in the formation of digestive juices, the basis of blood, urine and sweat.
In addition, water is required to regulate body temperature, reduce the risk of cystitis, maintain cellular health, lubricate joints, cushion and keep the bladder clean of bacteria.
MineralsMinerals are essential micronutrients that help build strong bones and maintain a healthy heart rate. Sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus and calcium are vital minerals for the human body.
Dietary FibersDietary fibers are a form of carbohydrates or polysaccharides that aid digestion.
However, the human body doesn't get nutrients or calories from fibers but it helps eliminate toxic waste from the digestive system.
VitaminsVitamins are essential nutrients that the body needs in small amounts. Usually, the body cannot produce vitamins so it must be consumed on a diet. They are grouped into water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins: Vitamins D, A, E and K are fat-soluble vitamins that travel easily through the kidneys and are excreted; while folate, riboflavin, vitamin C, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 niacin and thiamine are water-soluble vitamins that are stored in body cells.
An adult should consume nearly 800 milligrams of protein every day; 30 grams of fiber regularly; 77 grams of fat per day; 1.5 or 2 liters of water every day; two types of carbohydrates (simple and complex); vitamins to maintain normal blood pressure levels; best vitamins for diabetic patients; best vitamins for kidney health; differences between synthetic and natural vitamins; differences between vitamins and proteins; differences between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3.